Cheap Clothes

Cheap Clothes

There are a lot of people struggling right now to make ends meet. These uncertain financial times do not mean that you must completely give up dressing in nice clothing though. Certainly, if you are having a difficult time paying the bills you should not start spending hundreds of dollars on individual pieces of designer clothing. That would be irresponsible. There are ways to still get some very nice clothing however without going broke.

You may not realize it, but there is cheap clothing being sold all around us. Some places to consider looking include yard sales, thrift stores and online at sites such as eBay. If you have never browsed through any of these places, you may be surprised at how many very high quality pieces of clothing are available almost any time you check.

Yard sales are an outstanding source for cheap clothes. There are some very disciplined and organized people out there who simply refuse to hang on to things they no longer have a use for in their life.

These people will put out clothing that is often very close to brand new at very low garage sale prices. It is not unusual to find high priced items like Aeropostale clothing being sold for fifty cents a piece. Most times, the people having the sales do not put out anything with noticeable damage.

Thrift stores are another option. There has been a bit of a stigma attached at times in the past to shopping in these stores, but in recent years they have become much more like department stores. In most cases, every donated item is checked out for quality before it is ever put on the sales floor. The prices in these stores will be slightly higher than a yard sale or garage sale, but you will find a greater selection in one place.

Online sites like eBay are an outstanding way to purchase gently worn clothing in bulk or in lots.

Many people put their unwanted clothing online at auction when they have either lost or gained weight or have decided to clear out items like maternity clothing that is no longer being used. These larger lots of clothing can often bring you amazing savings and often include designer items that have been thrown in with the larger lot.

If you are willing to consider wearing gently worn clothes, you can afford much more high quality clothing. Designer name brands sell at each of the places mentioned for a fraction of their original cost and most of the time you can hardly even tell that they have been worn. Being smart about how you shop for things like clothes can go a long way toward keeping more money in your wallet and designer clothing on your back.

You might also enjoy reading more about cheap clothes and cheap maternity clothes and where to get them.

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Clothing Terminology

Clothing Terminology
Clothing terminology comprises the names of individual garments and classes of garments, as well as the specialized vocabularies of the trades that have designed, manufactured, marketed and sold clothing over hundreds of years.

Clothing terminology ranges from the arcane (watchet, a pale blue color name from the sixteenth century) to the everyday (t-shirt), and changes over time in response to fashion which in turn reflects social, artistic, and political trends.

Despite the constant introduction of new terms by fashion designers, clothing manufacturers and marketers, the names for several basic garment classes in English are very stable over time. Gown, shirt/skirt, frock, and coat are all attested back to the early medieval period.

Gown (from medieval Latin gunna) was a basic clothing term for hundreds of years, referring to a garment that hangs from the shoulders. In medieval and renaissance England gown referred to a loose outer garment worn by both men and women, sometimes short, more often ankle length, with sleeves. By the eighteenth century gown had become a standard category term for a woman's dress, a meaning it retained until the mid-twentieth century. Only in the last few decades has gown lost this general meaning in favor of dress. Today the term gown is rare except in specialized cases: academic dress or cap and gown, evening gown, nightgown, hospital gown, and so on (see Gown).

Shirt and skirt are originally the same word, the former being the southern and the latter the northern pronunciation in early Middle English. Like gown, shirt is becoming a specialized term in Britain, though it retains its general meaning in the U.S. (see Shirt).

Coat remains a term for an overgarment, its essential meaning for the last thousand years (see Coat).

Names for new styles or fashions in clothing are frequently the deliberate inventions of fashion designers or clothing manufacturers; these include Chanel's Little Black Dress (a term which has survived) and Lanvin's robe de style (which has not). Other terms are of more obscure origin.

Clothing styles are frequently named after people ??often with a military connection:

The Garibaldi jacket and Garibaldi shirt were bright red woolen garments for women with black embroidery or braid and military details popular in the 1860s; they are named after the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi who visited England in 1863.
The Eisenhower jacket or "Ike" jacket is a waist-length, military jacket of World War II origins. Called the "Jacket, Field, Wool, M-1944", it was commissioned by then General Dwight Eisenhower as a new field jacket for the US Forces in Northern Europe. The jacket was based on the British Army 'Battle Dress' jacket of the same era.
The cardigan is a knitted jacket or button-front sweater created to keep British soldiers warm in Russian winters. It is named for James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, who led the Charge of the Light Brigade in the Crimean War (1854).

The Mao jacket is a very plain (often grey), high-collared, shirtlike jacket customarily worn by Mao Zedong and the people of China during his regime. Its drab design and uniformity was a reaction to pre-Revolution class distinctions of clothes, with elites dressing in elaborate silks, while poor laborers wore very rough clothes.
The Nehru jacket is a uniform jacket without lapels or collars, popularized by Jawaharial Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India.

Another fertile source for clothing terms is place names, which usually reflect the origin (or supposed origin) of a fashion. Modern terms such as Bermuda shorts, Hawaiian shirts, and Fair Isle sweaters are the latest in a long line that stretches back to holland (linen), damask ("from Damascus"), polonaise ("in the fashion of Polish women"), jersey (originally Jersey frock), Balaclava, mantua, and denim ("serge de after the city).

Costume historians, with a "rearward-looking" view, require names for clothing styles that were not used (or needed) when the styles were actually worn. For example, the Van Dyke collar is so-called from its appearances in seventeenth century portraits by Anthony Van Dyck, and the Watteau pleats of the robe are called after their appearance in the portraits of Antoine Watteau.

Similarly, terms may be applied ahistorically to entire categories of garments, so that corset is applied to garments that were called stays or a pair of bodies until the introduction of the word corset in the late eighteenth century. And dress is now applied to any woman's garment consisting of a bodice and skirt, although for most of its history dress simply meant clothing, or a complete outfit of clothing with its appropriate accessories.

A notable trend at the turn of the twenty-first century is "cute" short forms: camisole becomes cami, hooded sweaters or sweatshirts become hoodies, and as of 2005, short or "shrunken" cardigans are cardies.

The much-older term shimmy for "slip" is most likely a false singular from chemise.
Himfr is a scholar, focusing his research on Chinese cultures. If you are interested in purchasing China goods, please visit

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Horror Clothing

Horror Clothing
Some clothes need no words because the picture says it all like horror clothing. It is now become a fashion people like to wear horror clothes. If you have a tendency to wonder the streets like the living dead or you"re just simply a ghoulish girl, or maybe you"re a monster lover, take on the super cute and the dark and evil all at the same time you can wear these clothes. Children are notoriously impatient when it comes to shopping because they want to wear something different that look good and horror so earlier they used to be this type of cloth but now it is a fashion horror clothes anyone can wear.

As the name suggest horror clothes means clothes that give horror look after wearing these clothes. Horror Clothing is expensive. These come from horror films as the aim of the horror movie is to give the emotions of fear, disgust and horror to viewers. In the same way horror clothes wearer wants to give the same to others. Many categories are available in horror clothing like men"s t-shirts women"s, t-shirts and many more in many designs based on famous horror movie and stories. People like these categories of horror clothing very much.

Only the bravest of the brave heart would consider wearing this horror costume, unless they were female wanting to wear out the last nerve of their first time date. You can imagine the look of 'vestite' dressed as a transvestite, well. Monsters, vampires and evil from the latest horror films are the most popular at Halloween or at costume parties. Horror clothes for adults are all about adding a risqu element to a classic child costume. These clothes are the perfect way to highlight these personality traits. The image of a scary horror man with bushy eyebrows and pointed goatee is one look.

Many different accessories can also be added, including a pitchfork, horns, a tail and even sharp pointy teeth. You will be easily recognizable as the Prince of Darkness, when you are dressed in a full length red satin cape with a stand up collar. A black silk shirt with a coordinating ruffled jabot and brocade vest will be peering out from under the cape. In horror clothing women do not look like ugly and scary but more like a sexy fiery femme fatale or temptress. These clothes are available in malls and shops also but if you want to purchase these clothes then you should be more aware from latest movies.

Shop at necroproduct and get Horror Clothing, Necro's Men Clothing, Necro"s headgear, Necro"s music and all necro"s product at the lowest prices.

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50s Retro Clothing And Gothic Clothing

50s Retro Clothing And Gothic Clothing

We present all our individual identities through our clothes, and there is nothing better than a trend by stepping out into something that has fashionistas everywhere salivating, desperate to half an inch more your style. You can keep ahead of the game by decking themselves with unique clothing, 50s clothing is ideal for retro-types, or you can show your dark side with some inspiring Gothic clothing.

When making, like Marty McFly and travel time in the 1950s is the case, then why not try the rockabilly range - modern 50's style clothing with a twist. The variety of clothes on offer here is really huge, includes dungarees, Rock T-shirts and short jackets for men and swirly skirts and leggings for women. What ever you choose, you can customize the entire look to make it work for you, so do not be afraid to be unique.

Gothic clothing, also allows you to personalize the look to suit you, by mixing and matching various pieces of clothing. Men, for example, adorn themselves in striped pants can and leather jackets, while women adorn themselves in black Gothic Skirts, dresses and jewelry. The choice is really up to you!

But if you choose not to splash out on 50s retro clothing and gothic clothes want to, where you buy it?

Well, try to 50s retro clothing "or" gothic clothing "into an Internet search engine like Google or Bing. The Internet is a vast resource as compared to using the phone book, so it definitely provides a fast and efficient method of finding high-quality British apparel retailer.

What you should look into a retailer of50s retro clothing and gothic clothing?

Well, that's a good idea to ensure that they are a big name retailers, and sell a large selection of clothing - including men's, ladies, shoes, accessories, but also a wealth of articles in the clearance sale. Retailers of this type are more knowledgeable about certain types of clothing, especially in terms of unique fashion as 50s retro clothing and gothic clothing. The best online retailers should also free shipping for orders over 50, with guaranteed next-day delivery offer possible.
Please buy wrap clothing now with discount!

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Clothes Online:

Clothes Online:
Now-a-days, people are crazy to buy different types of clothes. You can easily purchase trendy and affordable clothes online. By shopping online, you can save your lots of time as well as money. There is no need to stand in long queue for payment and carry heavy bags. Just use your fingertips to purchase your favorite clothes. You can get high-quality of clothes by shopping online, so dont think much. The internet enables you to shop in the privacy of your own home. Now, you dont have to fight the crowds or deal with parking. Well, there are many retailers which offer huge varieties of clothes for its online customers. You can shop for your near and dear ones and give them surprise with trendy clothes. These days people dont have time to go out and shop so, for them buying clothes online is the best option.

If you want to purchase clothes online then first you have to decide and find out what garment do you need the most. You can buy varieties of clothes which are - casual, formal, fashionable or career oriented. So online shopping for clothes is the great idea. Well, one of the great benefits of purchasing clothes online is you can purchase 24*7. You can purchase anytime you want, there is no time limit. Another benefit of purchasing clothes online is you can purchase for anyone men, women, children, kids etc. You can get clothes in all colors, sizes and different brands. The upside of buying clothes online is theyre generally a lot cheaper than buying them in the store.

You can make payment of your purchasing through your debit/credit card. So, you dont have to pay your bill instantly. For all those people who do not want to spend huge money on the big designer for them, varieties of brands are available over the internet. You can view the designs, decide on color and size and then give order for it. Shopping over the net is a fun because you can buy clothes from anywhere in the world. It offers you a much bigger selection to select from.

Buy jeans, T Shirts, coats from Top Brands G Star, Diesel, Firetrap, Gio Goi, Soviet, Lacoste and many more online at USC.

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Badass Clothing

Badass Clothing

There are certain brands of clothing that just want to keep it as rough as possible, brands that stick to provocative designs and anti-social attitude. Of course not everyone is fit to wear their clothing, but it is definitely thing for people who are involved in urban culture and interested in speaking their ideas out loud. People, who still support illegal graffiti and stickers, people who stick to the old values formed by the pioneers of the genre. In this article we will take a look at some of the aggressive brands.

Rogue Status is a US brand established in 2005 and based on anti-establishment principles. In its designs the label creates controversy and shows things that not all people want to see. It is truly a protesting label that must be worn with an understanding of what do you have on your t-shirt.
The designers use familiar images and manage to fuse them into something new and still keep the main idea, like this Politricks tee. Some of the clothing carries a really aggressive attitude which by the way is included into both Rogue Status clothing and Rogue Status accessories. The brand offers a wide range of clothing with different designs but united under the same idea of protesting and speaking out loud. In addition to their visual protesting Rogue Status also donates a part of their income to serving American soldiers, helping them to stay in touch with their families. So this is a brand that is not just about words.
DTA Clothing (Don't Trust Anyone) is also a protesting brand from US closely related to Rogue Status.
Their designs are mainly provocative against government propaganda, violence and aggression. They often use familiar symbols and logos but change them so they can carry a different message. For example this Crest t-shirt has an eagle compiled of guns which symbolizes the aggression and violence of the official government structures.
Of course today hip-hop culture is largely accepted and commercialized and due to these factors the culture almost lost its edginess and protest. So at this point it is great that such brands as Rogue Status, DT and crews like Wild Ones support the real oppositional values and return urban culture to its rebellious roots. It is a new living and breathing underground and you can also become a part of it by expression your views and disagreement at least through your clothing.

In terms of principles & outlook in life, that is, I guess, I am a strong willed person and that i am the type who "doesn't go with the flow". I have always been a believer of the paradigm that i don't have to do a thing just because everybody is doing it. I value moral fiber and good sense of virtue.

Wholesale Clothing Online - Fashionable Winter Clothes With WholesaleClothing

Wholesale Clothing Online - Fashionable Winter Clothes With Wholesale Clothing

I used to think that during winter all you need are thick clothes to give you the warmth you need. You do not need to be that fashion-conscious and should give regards to functionality of the clothes you wear. My winter clothes three or five years ago would still be used this year. But I have also observed how many people would stay fashionable and trendy even during winter season.

There are so many men out there who would even don a good quality leather jacket and wear different sets depending on the occasion. I thought to myself, it would be quite impractical to get into this trend because let's face it, winter clothes per se cost a lot. How can you change your winter clothing every winter season and not burn a whole in your pocket?

Then I discovered how drop ship and wholesale suppliers have made winter clothes much more affordable to the people.
Salehoo's list of drop ship and wholesale suppliers can offer you winter clothes at such good prices that you can actually afford to look sharp and trendy even during winter season. Another thing that I found out is that, even with the mark-up of these suppliers, they still earn a good amount of profit because they get to buy products in volume at such a very low price. No wonder there are so many small entrepreneurs going into wholesale business.
Winter clothing bought wholesale can be sold at cheap prices because they are bought in volume or bulks. Manufacturers also agree to selling them in bulks because they would want to clean up their inventory before the next seasons starts and winter clothes will no longer be needed. You can get suppliers from all over the world to provide you your merchandise with just some clicks and drags, something that you could not imagine doing a decade ago.

Drop shippers partner with wholesale suppliers find online method of business very effective in selling winter clothes and other wholesale clothing.
Advertisements, marketing and promotion are all done in cyberspace, and do not require you as the business owner to leave the comforts of your home, to earn money. Now that's another savings you have as a business person.
And the best part is that, if customers know how good a quality your merchandise is, you will not have any problems selling them. Salehoo's suppliers have already good reputation for quality, yet low cost products and because of this, you can sit back and watch orders start to pile up in your inbox.

Get Instant and Unlimited Access to 5,347 Pre-Screened Legitimate Wholesale Suppliers of High Quality Products.

Artfulwears Clothing

Artfulwears Clothing
Fashion created to fit your body as possible. The material used for much better quality and style of dress designed to flatter your body, not the mannequins. Fashion is made much more attention. If you buy the right designer clothing, Artful wear that suit your needs and your style.

Women's Clothing Make You Look Fabulous b>

Many women in women's luxury apparel shopping is difficult. You might enjoy trying things, but I find that nothing seems to suit them. These women often head to the discount stores rather than the boutiques that carry amazing styles. If you're such a woman, so try logging on to the store and the Artfulwears. Each year a number of different styles hit the fashion market, guaranteeing that there is something to suit every woman Artfulwears. A trendy wardrobe probably feels justified in having more shoes, or purse than anything else in his cabinet. She loves wearing clothes that look good, both the stand and the girl. Was the ultimate online boutique for you.

Artfulwears jewelry b>

One thing that always makes an outfit you are finished jewelry. Long ago that gold was the standard jewelry that everyone wore silver jewelry, but became more popular, and now women all wore the famous big awards shows. What makes the perfect complement to any outfit? It really depends on what you're wearing a dress. It is possible to wear a blue outfit and green earrings. It is possible for a red ring and a pink shirt. This is one of the beauty of jewelry.

Artfulwears Handbags b>

It is good to know that you're not stuck in a bag, if you get it. There are women who have hundreds of handbags in the closet, and those who hold only five or so favorite. A handbag is not like a tattoo: always get rid of the old and get a new one! Artfulwears the best company that provides you with the various handbags, such as designer handbags.

Artfulwears Travel articles b>

Nothing is more fun than traveling to other places. Fashion designers know that people are traveling more know than ever before, and they have come to the rescue, which is fun and flattering, travel gear, which is sure to smile every traveler. Artfulwears that provides you with various other articles of luxury apparel department store bags, beautiful luxury suitcases, women's fashion apparel.

Modern Islamic Clothing: more on Islamic clothing

Modern Islamic Clothing: more on Islamic clothing

Tell me honestly, do you really think by covering up more Islamic clothing turns unfashionable? You are wrong because the latest fashion trend suggests that be it Muslim or Non Muslim women, be it the young, adults or the young adults, the women feels more comfortable in covering up more to usher in an ever elusive, enigmatic feminine appeal.  And this is indeed the hot fashion trend of the era. Yes, this has also altered the age old notion associated with modest clothing that Islamic clothing for women is something which is to be worn in front of Allah , rather with the new age  modest clothing trend, Islamic fashion has taken a whole new turn and now  stands as the emblem of style and fashion.

Abayas, Jibabs, caftans, maxi dresses and long skirt- there are in fact an array of clothing styles for Muslim women.
But look closely and you will be amazed to find that there is one element present in all these and that is the hint of modesty. Needless to say that the Islamic women clothing demands her to shroud her femininity and to cover up more. Be it in the sultry summer or in the chilly winter, and even in the misty seasons of falls the very idea of women Islamic clothing remains intact which is to proclaim modesty whilst covering up more.
The modern Islamic clothing now offers a fascinating fusion of style, elegance and purity. The two layered Jilbabs, the modish Abayas now come in a variety of patterns and now can be decorated with embroidery, sequins, lace, beading.
Gone are the days of boring black and now Abayas and Jilbabs can be made of any decorative material to make it look more elegant. Now available in an array of elegant styles this modern Islamic clothing is now available in different styles and can be worn on various occasions and is suitable for women of all sizes. Well, black is still in fashion yet abayas, Jilbabs, maxi dresses and Caftans are also available in other colors  like mustard, olive, beige, navy, light grey, chocolate, blue, sea green, rose and lavender.
Trust me; fashion is not always about being a follower. This season step out in some fabulous modest clothing and you will be pretty amazed to see how many people looks your way for fashion advice! And now staying modest has become easy with modest websites and online Islamic clothing stores bringing you more of what you love!

This content has been taken from:

For more information about Abaya here.

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Children Clothes - Fashionable Children Clothes

Children Clothes - Fashionable Children Clothes
Childhood is the great days for any child. No worries, No tensions, only eating, playing, learning new things and moving around wearing beautiful dresses. Such great days never come again in once life. Thus life's real enjoyment one gets during his or her childhood. In beautiful dresses children look like very innocent and the face of God or even smarter than a young one. Some times with fashionable children clothes it seems even mature and an experienced one than a wise man. Thus good children wear makes your child more beautiful and smarter than ever and your kids wear selection should be good enough to make your kid more attractive and beautiful.

Kids fashion wear are available in numerous varieties now a days due to Mall and Online Shop culture.
Children are most loveable and cutest gifts of God. The dress they wear can really enhance their cuteness and funky character. Considering this fact, children wear manufacturers are always committed to fulfill the dressing needs of their little customers producing the clothes for children between 2 to 12 years age, keeping their little customer's requirements as per the current trends and fashion of local as well international market. They take extreme care while manufacturing the clothes and follow strict quality control measures to ensure that best quality clothes are available to your little ones. Online kids wear shop having beautiful collections of outfits for the kids between 2 to 12 years, designed after thorough research by the expert designers these are the most stylish clothes which will give your child awesome trendy look. Every child is unique and has got different taste for dressing, considering this fact children clothing manufacturers and sellers offer kids clothing in vast variety of colors, styles and designs so that your child can select the one that he/she likes the most. Wide range of adorable kids wear designs so that the parents do not have to compromise on quality and design and can choose the best for their children.
Your kid is your little Hero, who is going to fame you in future. There should not be any compromise for his / her likeness about clothes in his childhood because dressing sense perfection will make him more perfect in his / her entire life. And now it’s very easy for you to look for a quality kids wear manufacturer, you can go to any famed brand store, located near to your place or shop online. Just search in Google and you would be finding a great list of children clothing manufacturers. Now you can go to the sites, browse the catalog and order for the cloths you liked. This will offer you the facility to buy best dresses for your kids at your comfort.

Lolipop kids wear shop offers kids clothing for ages 2-12 years old including boys clothing, girls clothing, children wear, kids fashion wear, kids clothes, trendy and comfortable kids wear, kids foot wear and kids accessories, Ahmedabad, India. SEO services provided by Jigney Bhachech, CEO, Opal Infotech, India.

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Tapa Cloth

Tapa Cloth

The cloth is known by a number of local names although the term tapa is international and understood throughout the islands that use the cloth. The word tapa is from Tahiti and the Cook Islands, where Captain Cook was the first European to pick it up and to introduce it to the rest of the world. In Tonga, tapa is known as ngatu, and here it is of great social importance to the islanders, often being given as gifts. In Samoa, the same cloth is called siapo. In Hawaii, it is known as kapa. In Rotuma, a Polynesian island in the Fiji group, it is called ha and in other Fiji islands it is called masi.

All these different words give some clue to the origin. Masi could mean the (bark of the) Dye-fig (Ficus tinctoria), endemic to Oceania, and probably the one originally used to make tapa. Somewhere in history, during the voyages of migration the hiapo or siapo was introduced from Southeast Asia, the Paper mulberry tree (Broussonetia papyrifera). The bark of this tree is much better to use, and put the use of the Dye-fig into oblivion. Only its name remained in Fiji. Tapa finally, has the meaning of border or strip. It seems likely that before the glueing process became common to make large sheets (see below) only narrow strips were produced.

Tapa can be painted. The patterns of Tongan, Samoan, and Fijian tapa usually form a grid of squares, each of which contains geometrical patterns with repeated motifs such as fish and plants, for example four stylised leaves forming a diagonal cross. Traditional dyes are usually black and rust-brown, although other colours are also known.

In former times the cloth was primarily used for clothing, but now cotton and other textiles have replaced it. The major problem with tapa clothing is that the tissue is just like paper: it loses all its strength when wet and falls apart. Still it was better than grass-skirts, which usually are either heavier and harder or easily blown apart, but on the low coral atolls where the mulberry does not grow, people had no choice.

Nowadays tapa is still often worn on formal occasions such as weddings. Another use is as blanket at night. It is also highly prized for its decorative value and is often found used to hang on the walls as a decoration. In Tonga a family is considered poor, no matter how much money they have, if they do not have any tapa in stock at home to donate at life crises like marriages, funerals and so forth. If the tapa was donated to them by a chief or even the royal family, it is more valuable.

Stripping the bark from the trees in Nomuka


As Tonga is the country where tapa is still a part of daily life, the following description is given for that country. Although on other islands the overall process is about the same, there still might be several smaller or larger differences.

In Tonga hiapo is the name given to the paper-mulberry tree. People have bunches of them growing in a corner of their plantations. They are cut and brought home where the first task is to strip the bark from the trees. The strips are about hand wide and person long. The wood so left over is named mokofute. The bark consists of 2 layers. In the next step the outer bark is to be scraped or split off from the inner bark. This work is called haalo. The outerbark is discarded, the innerbark, named tutu or loututu, is left over. It is first dried in the sun before being soaked.

A merry break from beating the tapa in Nukualofa

After this, the bark is beaten on a wooden tutua anvil using wooden mallets called ike. In the beating the bark is made thinner and spread out to a width of about 25 cm. This phase of the work is called tutu (or tutua). The mallets are flat on one side and have coarse and fine grooves on the other sides. First the coarse sides are used, and towards the end of the work the flat side (t-tua). The continuous "thonk" beats of the tapa mallet is still a normal sound in the Tongan villages. If several women work together they can make a concert out of it. In that case there might be one who tukipotu, beats the end of the tutua to set the rhythm.

When the strips are thin enough, several strips are taken together and beaten together into a large sheet. Some starch from the kumala, or manioke may be rubbed on places which are unwilling to stick. This part of the work is called opoopo, the glue is called tou and the resulting sheet of tapa is called fetaaki. It then consists of two layers of strips in perpendicular direction, the upper one called lauolunga and the lower one laulalo. A knife or sharp shell named mutu is used to trim the edges, and the pieces fallen off in this process are called papanaki. When the white fetaaki is smoked brown, it is called sala.

Often the women of a whole village work together on a huge sheet of tapa. A donation to the church or their chief at an important occasion. Such sheets are about 3 meters wide and 15, or 30, or sometimes even 60 meters long. The 15 meter pieces are called launima (meaning: five-sheet, because the sheet is 5 squares), and the 30 meter pieces are called lautefuhi.

Ready to rub the koka onto the fetaaki in Eua

Friedrich Ratzel in The History of Mankind described, in 1896, the fabrication of tapa as follows:

A circular cut is made with a shell in the bark above the root of the tree; the tree is broken off, and in a few days, when the stem is half-dry, the bark and bast are separated from it. The bast is then cleaned and macerated in water, after which it is beaten with the ribbed club on a wooden block. This beating enlivens a village in Tonga as threshing does in Europe. In half an hour the piece will have changed in shape from a strip almost to a square. The edges are snipped with shells, and a large number of the pieces are drawn separately over a semi-cylindrical wooden stamp, on which the pattern, worked in coco-fibre, is stretched and smeared with a fluid at once adhesive and colouring. On each a second and third layer is placed; and the piece, three layers thick, is coloured more strongly in the parts which are thrown into relief by the inequalities of the bed. Others are annexed to it both at the side and the end, until pieces a yard wide, and 20 to 25 yards long, are produced.


The fetaaki is almost always painted. It then becomes ngatu, the Tongan word for the final product. The painting is done over the whole length, but only the central 2.5 meter in the width direction. On both sides there is an unpainted border of about 20 cm wide, which is called the tapa (in Tonga). In order to paint it, the sheets are first put over a huge wooden drum covered with stencils or kupesi. These stencils are made from coconut front midribs (or any other sticks of a few millimeter thick). These stencils are made in the pattern which will be used. There are a handful of standard kupesi designs, like the 'Pine road' (the road from the palace to the royal cemetery), or the 'Shield of Tonga', or the 'Lion' (the king), or the 'Dove' (the king as ruler), and more abstract figures like the 'Manulua' (2 birds).

A Tongan woman accentuating the kupesi design

The tapa sheet is put over the drum and the women now rub with force a dabber with some brown paint (made from the koka tree (Bischofia javanica)) over the sheet. This work is called tatai. Where they rub over a rib of the kupesi more paint will stick to that position while very little will stick elsewhere. In this way the basic pattern is put on the sheet. Once a part is done, they lift up the sheet and proceed to the next strip and so forth. Only when the whole sheet has been preprocessed, then it will be spread out on the ground and with a brush (made from Pandanus seeds) the women will accentuate the faintly visible marks with some more generous paint, this time made from the tongo, the mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Both koka and tongo paint are always brown, but the latter is much darker. Black is not used in Tonga, although it is characteristic for Fiji.

It is customary that during the paint process lines are drawn on the ngatu along the width every 45 cm or more. The kupesi too are made to the size that they will fit in the divisions thus made. Such a division is known as langanga and they are numbered (on the blank tapa) from one to as many as needed for the whole length. When a smaller piece of ngatu is needed, the sheet is cut along a langanga division. A 4 to 6 langanga piece is called folaosi. An 8 piece is ftuua, while a 10 langanga piece of ngatu is known as toka hongofulu. Less common are the double ftuua, named ftuf or double of that again, the ftuvalu.

These are the traditional ngatu, as evidenced by the extensive vocabulary used (still many more terms exist). Nowadays for the tourist trade other sizes and designs can be made as well done.

See also



^ Ratzel, Friedrich. The History of Mankind. (London: MacMillan, 1896). URL: accessed 30 November 2009.

Arkinstall, Patricia Lorraine, study of bark cloth from Hawaii, Samoa, Tonga and Fiji, An exploration of the regional development of distinctive styles of bark cloth and its relationship to other cultural factors, Ithaca, N.Y., 1966.

Brigham, William Tufts, a hana kapa, making of bark-cloth in Hawaii, Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press, 1911.

I.F. Helu; Critical essays: Cultural perspectives from the Southseas; 1999

Kaeppler, Adrienne Lois, he fabrics of Hawaii (bark cloth), Leigh-on-Sea, F. Lewis, 1975.

External links

Tapa in the Pacific Islands

Tapa cloth in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

New Zealand Ministry of Pacific island Affairs - Tapa in Tonga

Kew Gardens bark cloth webpage

Tapa cloth

Samples of Tapa from Oro Province - Papua New Guinea

Fijian masi-making

Bark cloth - Tapa - Mats The History of Mankind - Ratzel


Culture of Indigenous Oceania

List of resources about traditional arts and culture of Oceania


ahu Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Hawaii kapa (Hawaii) lei (Hawaii) magimagi Mori moai New Zealand Oceania Papua New Guinea reimiro t moko tapa ["masi" (Fiji), "ngatu" (Tonga), "siapo" (Smoa), " uha" (Rotuma)] tabua ta'ovala tattoo tfui tivaivai

Broad culture

areca nut Kava culture kava, [" awa" (Hawaii), " ava" (Smoa), "yaqona" (Fiji), or "sakau" (Pohnpei)] Lapita Mori Polynesia Polynesian navigation wood carving

Geo-specific, general

Australia Australian Aboriginal astronomy Austronesia Caroline Islands, -Pwo Chatham Islands Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji, -Lau Islands, -traditions and ceremonies Guam Hawaii, -Lomilomi massage Kiribati French Polynesia's Marquesas Islands Marshall Islands, -Stick charts of Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Norfolk Island Palau Papua New Guinea Pitcairn Islands Smoa Solomon Islands Tonga Torres Strait Islands Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna Yap, -navigation, -Weriyeng navigation school


Aboriginal Dugout Alingano Maisu Drua Dugout (boat) Hawaiiloa Hklea Modern Hawaiian outrigger Mori migration Outrigger Polynesian sailing Proa Waka,-List of Walap


'aparima cibi fara fire dancing firewalking haka hivinau hula kailao kapa haka Kiribati meke 'ote'a pa'o'a poi Rotuma siva Tahiti tmr tautoga Tonga 'upa'upa


Australia's Garma Festival Hawaii's Aloha Festivals, Merrie Monarch Festival, and World Invitational Hula Festival Fiji New Zealand's Pasifika Festival The Pacific Community's Festival of Pacific Arts Festivals in Papua New Guinea


by area


Languages of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia East Timor1 Fiji Indonesia1 Kiribati Papua New Guinea Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Palau Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies and

other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Rotuma Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

1 Transcontinental country.

by category

Languages of Oceania



Literature of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia East Timor1 Fiji Indonesia1 Kiribati Papua New Guinea Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Palau Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies and

other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Rotuma Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

1 Transcontinental country.


Austral Islands (French Polynesia) Australia Austronesia Cook Islands didgeridoo Easter Island Fiji Guam Hawaii Kiribati Lali Mori Melanesia Northern Mariana Islands Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Palau Papua New Guinea Polynesia Smoa Slit drum Solomon Islands Tahiti Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna


Australian Aboriginal Fijian Mori Melanesian Menehune Micronesian Oceanian legendary creatures Polynesian Rapa Nui Vanuatu


Indigneous Australian Austronesian Chamorro Chatham Islander (Moriori or Rekohu) Fijian Hawaiian (knaka maoli) Mori Marshallese Melanesian Micronesian Negrito Norfolk Islander Papuan Polynesian Indigenous Polynesian (Mhi) Rapanui Rotuman Samoan Tahitian Tongan Torres Strait Islander



Religion in Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia East Timor1 Fiji Indonesia1 Kiribati Papua New Guinea Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Palau Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies and

other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Rotuma Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

1 Transcontinental country.

Not included: Oceanian: cinema, (indigenous) currency, dress, folkore, cuisine. Also see Category:Oceanian culture.

Categories: Nonwoven fabrics | Polynesian clothing | Polynesian culture | Tongan culture

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Tips For A Successful Apparel And Accessories Distribution Business

Earning your living by picking and choosing the latest trends in fashion and accessories could be a dream come true for many people. In fact, many people have a special talent for this type of of occupation. Learn how your love of fashionable clothing and accessories could turn into a successful business.
Years ago, traders and barterers set the path for modern retailer businesses. Your role as a distributor would involve price negotiations with your suppliers. Getting your merchandise at the lowest cost is an important part of making a profit. Avoiding piled up and unsold merchandise in your warehouse is always best.
Consider the financial part of your business. Getting started means you purchase a start up inventory. The potential distributor should begin making a list of all prospective vendors for the purchase of usable merchandise. Securing the services of a trusted accountant is a good idea as well. Keep in mind the addition of accessories and jewelry to your garment shipment as well.
Most clothing and accessory warehouses consist of several departments for separating, preparing, and shipping merchandise. One department might hang clothing while another sorted and packed belts and costume jewelry. Researching the most successful process for the sorting and shipping of your inventory is vital to profitable operations. You might consider available software for allowing you step-by-step instructions for the most important parts of your business.
Choosing a special area of sales could be a part of your business plans. However, if you are considering apparel, accessories, and jewelry, you might keep in mind the more variety you maintain, the better sales you will make. Another important part of specializing in the distribution of clothing and accessories is staying on top of the latest styles and trends.
Larger apparel distributing companies generally hire buyers for dealing with the purchase of new merchandise. These are the people you should trust in choosing the best of the best. Making sure you have meetings about what you want and what your buyers have come across in the industry is important and recommended by successful professionals.
Being a successful clothing distributor means you staying ahead of the competition. Keeping a close eye on what your competition will allow you the advantage of getting ahead. Hiring only the employees you know you can trust to help you maintain smooth operation is another way you can ensure success, even if you only have a few people in your entire business.

Be a Trendsetter With Vintage Clothing and Accessories

When women are asked about their most favourite possession, most of them would come out with the answer of clothing and accessories. Well, that's true because indeed many women love to buy vintage clothing & accessories because they are a collector's item in most of the women's wardrobes and every good piece of clothing looks the best when coupled with the right kind of accessories. For all those who love to make their style statement in the retro and vintage style outfit and accessories, these are the most owned items in every wardrobe.
If you are looking for such vintage items, you might complain for them being used and worn out but then at the end of the day it's all worth it because you will hardly any way find vintage clothes without any used marks. However, many companies have stocked a lot of such clothes for all those who are in love with the collection. In fact the fresh and the unused clothes with their tags still intact come at a much higher price as compared to those which are without their price tags. The customers these days are very demanding and they would give anything to own a pair of vintage clothing with some funky accessories.
The very idea of buying vintage stuff is that they are eco friendly and are always fashionable and trendy. After the year 1990, the suppliers have seen a tremendous growth in the customers of the vintage stuff. These old clothing are evergreen beauty and have a great quality. But the only major issue which the customers face is that they don't know how to differentiate between authentic and the unauthentic piece of vintage clothing and mostly they are so highly priced that it is difficult to make the purchase. Well, if you need to locate an authentic and beautiful pair of vintage stuff, you must log on to some nice online shops to make an impactful purchase.
The increased awareness about the vintage clothing is due to their promotions by celebrities like Julia Roberts, Kate Moss and others which has lead to more and more women purchasing this stuff. Other than that, the increase in the awareness of environment issues is also an important factor and more and more women are purchasing vintage clothing and accessories. So don't wait, grab your pair of vintage clothing and couple them with beautiful accessories as soon as possible and be a trendsetter amongst your friends.

Cycling Clothing and Accessories

Cycling regularly, for example as part of a daily routine, can not only remove or reduce the need to use a car, but also helps to get you fit, strengthens your immune system and have positive effects on how you feel. For example, regular exercise on your bike can help reduce the chances of heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. There are no real age limits to cycling and acquiring the necessary equipment is, for the most part, inexpensive. For those who want to cycle longer distances or even competitively, the right equipment can, however, be crucial to performance and comfort.
Generally, it can be unpleasant to cycle further than a few miles in street clothes, particularly work clothes. Apart from the obvious danger of getting items of clothing such as trousers or skirts caught in the spokes or chain, you will find comfortable, stretchy clothing made specifically for cycling of great benefit. Often, it will come fitted with reflective stripes to help avoid accidents on the road and release your body heat in order to keep your body at the ideal temperature for physical activity.
A good cycling jersey with a full zip will keep you comfortable and look the part. You can match it up with cycling shorts or lycra leggings to complete your look. Most importantly, you will need shorts that are at least above-knee length to avoid chafing. Some good quality sports socks made of breathable material are also important to avoid getting sweaty feet inside your shoes. Shoes, as it happens, are one area in which you may be able to save some money if you are not intending to cycle professionally. For a daily cycle routine or the odd trip out to keep fit, a pair of well-soled and robust trainers will be perfectly sufficient.
The most important criteria when choosing cycling shoes is grip, so pay close attention to the sole of your trainer. If you cycle on a more professional basis or simply want to look the part, a wide range of specialised cycling shoes is available by well-known cycling brands such as Shimano and Forte. Caution is advised here since it is very important that these shoes fit perfectly, such that buying such equipment online or without trying them on might be a very costly mistake.
In the autumn, long winter months and early spring, cover up with a long-sleeved cycling jersey or a padded windproof jacket. Established cycling brands such as BioRacer, Ms Tina, Santini, Canari and Inverse issue professional-looking and comfortable cycling gear suitable for all climates and weather conditions.
In addition, accessories such as fitted cycling gloves and socks can significantly improve the quality of your cycling, be it to work or competitively. A helmet is a crucial part of cycling equipment nowadays, since it is proven to reduce the impact of head injuries during an accident. During the cold winter season, you will even be grateful for knee and arm warmers to avoid you catching a cold while out cycling.
Good quality equipment is fundamental to cycling, although it does not need to cost a fortune. Exactly what equipment is most suitable for you depends on whether you want to get fit, cycle to work or whether you intend to compete at a near professional level.
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Ladies Clothing

Ladies Clothing
Women are undeniably a attractive creature; nonetheless they still should concentrate towards their clothing to appear far more gorgeous. Women are more conscious about their dressing sense and continually try to appear their ideal by putting on exceptional clothing with trendy accessories.
Best dress is just the kind of ladies clothing that looks superior on any body structure. However it largely depends upon women height and color. It really is believed that halter dresses are 1 the fancier kind of ladies clothing. For any formal occasion such as wedding reception or any dinner party it is possible to wear it depending on the style and color. It's recommended to wear halter dress that finish just above the knee for shorter girls. To be able to have a princess appear, taller ladies can go for extended halter dress.
Style globe at all times introduces new trends of clothes in marketplace. Have you heard concerning the new additions inside the ladies clothing section. Fly high hoodies are todays trend. Hoody is definitely a word utilized for a hooded sweatshirt. Hoodies have produced their place in society. From hooded dress shirts to sweaters and jackets to even dresses with hoods on clothes have come to be a style statement that has crossed all design barriers.
An additional selection in ladies clothing is girls riding gear. Girls riding gears are fashionable also as breathable and lightweight. Girls riding gears includes jersey, pant, gloves etc. These are created of with that sort of supplies which resists heat which maintains you comfy at the time of sports. These are incredibly comfy in wearing and obtainable in one of a kind colors and prints on them. Supplies a stylish seem and sustain you active. Girls riding gear pants knee portions are developed from leather and Girls riding gear gloves produced from hardwearing plastic to shield your hand from injuries.
A good web site dealing with ladies clothing and Girls riding gear would be a wealthy source of information and facts all across the globe, there are numerous internet sites deals with low-priced dresses which includes assortment of ranges for every single classes of the society. And if your price range does not allows you to get expensive women clothing mainly because a lot of stores are supplying shopping at discount prices.

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Children Clothes

Children Clothes
The right to fashion is not limited to adults only. The industry is increasingly spreading its wings and lowering its age quotient to fit kids. Todays kids are smarter, their choice of clothes is different than it used be one or two decades earlier. They know what is fashionable and what is not a also understand the importance of looking good but in their own sweet little way.

In present scenario, the childrens segment is attracting many designers. After being neglected for years, it has finally come up with interesting opportunities. There is tremendous scope for newness for there is so much to be invented and harnessed. The result of such positive sign of development is a uniquely varied collection of clothes in this division. The diversity has affected everyone. The designers are putting the best creative inputs, the stores have dedicated specified sections of the babies and the parents are more than happy to find beautiful clothes for their little ones. Elders have finally come at peace with the fact that there should be no place for dullness in anything concerning children. Clothes play such an important role in shaping up the imaginative faculties. They play vital role in the development of skills that help them relate to beauty.

Let the children do their own shopping. Accompany them to supermarkets. This will not help them choose stuff that they like but also teach them the basics of shopping. Teach them to choose the correct sizes. Take up online shopping in company of the little ones. It is fun watching them shop like grown ups do.

Childrens world and the Clothes

The children have their own world. The believe cartoons are for real, Barbies exist and superheroes will come to save them in hours of need. All of them like to dress like their role models. If boys enjoy dresses with masks of Spiderman, girls love the Barbies. They are naturally attracted to clothes that imitate their world Thus, T-shirts with painted Micky Mouse or a Donald Duck carries so much fun for them. Color is the other integral element.
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Childrens clothes and comfort-

While, the children may understand fashion but it is the duty of the parents to know the comfort factor. Select the fabrics that are not rough. Natural fabrics suit them the best. Very tight clothes seem to make them uncomfortable. Choose the ones that do not stick to the body too tightly. On the other hand very loose clothes with also not placate them.


Children tend to need many clothes. Then they grow up very fast, they will not be able to wear same clothes for years. So, it is not advisable to purchase very costly ones. The good news is that one can procure very good clothes even in reasonable prices.

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